There are various types of power electronic converters which are frequently used in electric power system applications such as power converter, regulated power supply, DC power supply and so on. These converters are again classified into different types based on different criteria.
Here, we discuss in detail about the DC to DC converters, operating principle and functionality. The output voltage of DC to DC converter can be greater than the input voltage or vice versa. The converter output voltages are used to match the power supply required to the loads. The connection and disconnection of power supply to the load can be controlled using a switch in the simple DC to DC converter circuit. DC to DC converter circuits consists of a transistor or diode switch, energy storage devices like inductors or capacitors and these converters are generally used as linear voltage regulators or switched mode voltage regulators.
DC to DC converters are used to provide DC regulated power supply, constant DC power supply to the electrical and electronics project circuits. As the input voltage is stepped up compared to output voltage, hence, it is also called as a step up converter. Generally, DC to DC converters can be designed using power semiconductor switching devices and discrete electrical and electronics components.
The continuous conduction mode circuit of the DC to DC boost converter is shown in the figure that consists of an inductor, capacitor, switching device, diode, and input voltage source.
This boost converter circuit switch is controlled using a pulse width modulator PWM. If this switch is in ON state, then energy will be developed in the inductor and thus more energy will be delivered to the output. The discontinuous conduction mode circuit of the DC to DC boost converter is shown in the figure that consists of elements such as capacitor, inductor, voltage source, diode, and switching device.
In this discontinuous conduction mode, if the switch is in ON state, then energy will be delivered to the power storage element, inductor. If the switch is in OFF state for some period, then the inductor current will reach zero until the next switching cycle is on.
Thus, the capacitor gets charged and discharged with respect to the input voltage. But, here the output voltage in discontinuous conduction mode is less than the output voltage in continuous conduction mode. Similarly, buck converters are used for converting high input DC voltage into low output DC voltage.
Buck-boost converters are used for maintaining output DC voltage high or low based on the input DC voltage source. If the input DC voltage is high, then the output will be low and vice-versa. Thus, we can maintain regulated DC voltage using buck-boost converters.
In several instances, we require 24V DC from a 12V source. This circuit suits well enough for converting DC 12v to 24v.A buck converter step-down converter is a DC-to-DC power converter which steps down voltage while stepping up current from its input supply to its output load. It is a class of switched-mode power supply SMPS typically containing at least two semiconductors a diode and a transistoralthough modern buck converters frequently replace the diode with a second transistor used for synchronous rectification and at least one energy storage element, a capacitorinductoror the two in combination.
To reduce voltage ripple, filters made of capacitors sometimes in combination with inductors are normally added to such a converter's output load-side filter and input supply-side filter. Switching converters such as buck converters provide much greater power efficiency as DC-to-DC converters than linear regulatorswhich are simpler circuits that lower voltages by dissipating power as heat, but do not step up output current.
The basic operation of the buck converter has the current in an inductor controlled by two switches usually a transistor and a diode. In the idealised converter, all the components are considered to be perfect. Specifically, the switch and the diode have zero voltage drop when on and zero current flow when off, and the inductor has zero series resistance.
Further, it is assumed that the input and output voltages do not change over the course of a cycle this would imply the output capacitance as being infinite. The conceptual model of the buck converter is best understood in terms of the relation between current and voltage of the inductor.
Beginning with the switch open off-statethe current in the circuit is zero. When the switch is first closed on-statethe current will begin to increase, and the inductor will produce an opposing voltage across its terminals in response to the changing current. This voltage drop counteracts the voltage of the source and therefore reduces the net voltage across the load. Over time, the rate of change of current decreases, and the voltage across the inductor also then decreases, increasing the voltage at the load.
During this time, the inductor stores energy in the form of a magnetic field. If the switch is opened while the current is still changing, then there will always be a voltage drop across the inductor, so the net voltage at the load will always be less than the input voltage source.
When the switch is opened again off-statethe voltage source will be removed from the circuit, and the current will decrease. The decreasing current will produce a voltage drop across the inductor opposite to the drop at on-stateand now the inductor becomes a Current Source. The stored energy in the inductor's magnetic field supports the current flow through the load. This current, flowing while the input voltage source is disconnected, when concatenated with the current flowing during on-state, totals to current greater than the average input current being zero during off-state.
The "increase" in average current makes up for the reduction in voltage, and ideally preserves the power provided to the load. During the off-state, the inductor is discharging its stored energy into the rest of the circuit. If the switch is closed again before the inductor fully discharges on-statethe voltage at the load will always be greater than zero. In this mode, the operating principle is described by the plots in figure L is used to transfer energy from the input to the output of the converter.
Therefore, the increase in current during the on-state is given by:. If we assume that the converter operates in the steady state, the energy stored in each component at the end of a commutation cycle T is equal to that at the beginning of the cycle. The above integrations can be done graphically.
For steady state operation, these areas must be equal. From this equation, it can be seen that the output voltage of the converter varies linearly with the duty cycle for a given input voltage. This is why this converter is referred to as step-down converter. In some cases, the amount of energy required by the load is too small. In this case, the current through the inductor falls to zero during part of the period. The only difference in the principle described above is that the inductor is completely discharged at the end of the commutation cycle see figure 5.
This has, however, some effect on the previous equations. The inductor current falling below zero results in the discharging of the output capacitor during each cycle and therefore higher switching losses. A different control technique known as Pulse-frequency modulation can be used to minimize these losses. We still consider that the converter operates in steady state.
Therefore, the energy in the inductor is the same at the beginning and at the end of the cycle in the case of discontinuous mode, it is zero.A Boost converter is a switch mode DC to DC converter in which the output voltage is greater than the input voltage.
It is also called as step up converter. The name step up converter comes from the fact that analogous to step up transformer the input voltage is stepped up to a level greater than the input voltage. By law of conservation of energy the input power has to be equal to output power assuming no losses in the circuit.
Therefore in boost converter.
How Does a DC to AC Power Converter Work?
The main working principle of boost converter is that the inductor in the input circuit resists sudden variations in input current. When switch is OFF the inductor stores energy in the form of magnetic energy and discharges it when switch is closed.
The capacitor in the output circuit is assumed large enough that the time constant of RC circuit in the output stage is high. The circuit diagram of boost converter is shown in the figure below. The boost converter can be operated in two modes. Assume in the entire analysis that the current swing maximum to minimum value through inductor and voltage swing through capacitor is very less so that they vary in a linear fashion. This is to ease the analysis and the results we will get through this analysis are quite accurate compared to real values.
When switch in ON the diode will be open circuited since the n side of diode is at higher voltage compared to p side which is shorted to ground through the switch. Hence the boost converter can be redrawn as follows. During this state the inductor charges and the inductor current increases. The current through the inductor is given as. Since the input voltage is constant.
The current through the inductor at the end of switch on state is given as. When switch in OFF the diode will be short circuited and the boost converter circuit can be redrawn as follows. The inductor now discharges through the diode and RC combination.
Solar Inverter Duty Transformer
Note the negative sign signifies that the inductor is discharging. The current through the inductor at the end of switch off state is given as.Thank you Your Enquiry has been sent successfully.
Media Gallery. Quality Policy.
Contact Us. Converter duty transformers are used as set up transformer from generator to line voltage. Converter transformers and heavy duty transformers have very durable and hassle free to be used by desired clients. We offer these automatic converter transformer and heavy duty transformers at a competitive price. One of the main differences from other types of converter transformers is that the load currents contain higher harmonics due to the distorted waveform.
The converter to the transformer causes the distorted current waveform. Network regulations also require reduction of harmonic distortion. The most common use for converter transformers are found in applications such as: Variable speed drives VSD Aluminium electrolysis DC arc furnace Graphitizing furnaces Traction substations Copper refining Product Details:.
Yes I'm Interested. Ask For Price. Looking for Product Name? Our Products. Distribution Transformers. Power Transformers. Furnace Transformers. Earthing Transformers.
Rectifier Transformers. Reactor Transformers. Converter Duty Transformers. Dry Transformers VPI.Transformers for rectifier and converter applications have several purposes except transforming the voltage of feeding electrical network to the voltage level of the rectifier or frequency converter. Converter and rectifier transformers are specially designed to withstand the current harmonics caused by the rectifier or frequency converter. These types of transformers are usually made with multiple secondary windings that are phase shifted e.
The higher pulse number the better harmonic reduction towards the supply network. The harmonic cancellation however means additional stress to the transformer active part because of additional energy losses. The balance of impedances between the multiple secondary windings is an important design parameter when making phase shifted transformers. When special measures are made to the transformer design will it work without overheating even in heavy duty operation.
Newsletter Subscribe for our newsletter. Upcoming Trade Fairs Read more Company videos Get a better understanding of our services by watching these brief videos. Emergency Services. Sell Your Transformers. Transformer Manufacturer? I accept cookies from this site Agree.Complete supply chain management for the Energy Products Division which entails supplier Raychem RPG offers a wide variety of Inverter duty transformers with two inverter windings to six inverter windings.
Raychem leads the market and is the 1st manufacturer who developed five winding transformers and passed short circuit test. Raychem offers inverter transformers with many innovations in order to reduce the cost of solar plants. The four inverter windings and six inverter windings transformers have made it feasible to reduce HV side hardware.
The ever increasing rating of inverters have pushed the rating of inverter transformers from 2 MVA to Featured Products Energy Storage Inverters. Simulators Cable Gland Selection Software. International Business Division. Transformers Division. Services Receptive Responsive Reliable.
Brochures Protecting Assets. Brochures Cable Accessories. Brochures Energy Storage Products. Raychem Innovation Center. Featured Products. Corporate Resources. Corporate Governance.Chopper Operation (Principle),Step Down Chopper (हिन्दी )
Business Units Energy Products Division. Raychem Management Team Management Team. Board Of Directors. Sustainability Excellence. Corporate Social Responsibility.
Business Behaviors. Great Place to Work. Workshop for Council Members. Changing Mindset at Halol Plant.A rotary phase converter is a device that transforms a single phase power to a multi-phase electric power.
This article explains how a rotary phase converter works.
Difference Between Voltage Converter and Transformer
A rotary phase converter may be defined as a device that helps an instrument or a technical equipment to run on a single-phase power. This device can be used to run original three phase equipment on a single phase power. To explain the dynamics of the same, this device produces a three-phase power from a single-phase power source. Thus, what the phase converter does is to add a third source of power to the existing two power sources so that a three-phase power supply is generated.
Rotary phase converters use a three-phase source of power with a power check correction factor, that serves to be a secure bet in providing energy.
This device is made effective through equipping it with an efficient kick-start capacity. This converter can be employed at locations that do not have 3 phase service provided in the area. Electric companies may provide a 3-phase service, however the charges may not prove to be cost-effective.
It can thus, be considered an economical avenue as it does not require a 3-phase service set up to be installed. A single phase circuit installation is all that is required. It is very important that you consider the longevity factor before you purchase the rotary phase converter which provides for efficient start-up capabilities. It must also be equipped well to convert the single-phase power to three phase power sources.
Before you decide on a rotary converter, check if the phase converter is providing equal and well-balanced power. If, however the power distribution is not even, the equipment can sustain damage while working. There are various types of phase converters. Digital phase converters and static phase converters are the other two types of converters.
The phase converters are suitable for various purposes. Static phase converters are used to give an efficient start up current to an engine whereas, rotary phase converters are employed to change single phase power to three phase power. This is not meant to deliver start-up power to engines but is used in regulating large machinery. However, with this self manufactured equipment, you must not expect the perfect output in terms of machinery efficiency.
Also, the power may not be supplied in a well-balanced manner and the equipment requiring more efficiency and power will not work well, even resulting in damage.
The main function of this phase converter is to convert a single phase source of power into three phase source of power.
What happens in here is that it uses a three-phase motor which is then coupled with two already existing capacitors. When the three phase motor is placed together, the capacitors then function as one single, large capacitor on which large machinery is able to run. When the single phase of power has to be converted, it is grouped together with two three phase motors terminal. The single-phase power source output is then attached to the third remaining lead placed in conjunction with the large functional capacitors that connects the converter with all the three-motor leads.
The rotary phase converters are known to produce three-phase motor power without proving disastrous to the equipment and its functioning as it produces a well-balanced and distributed power supply.
These converters are in the position to work for years without any disruption if the quality of material with which it is manufactured is standardized. With them achieving balanced three-motor leads, they are employed for grinders, sanders, welding, large industrial ovens, wood working and farming tools. Make sure that you always choose a high quality and efficiency rotary phase converters, with them being cost-effective as well. Do you know how factories and homes in isolated areas get supplied with high electric power at a lesser cost?
This is due to a device called phase converter, which…. The early pendulum clocks were subject to inaccuracy, which were….